The Sentinelese people are thought to be the most isolated people in the entire world. Located on North Sentinel Island in Eastern India, they have a population of about 500 and have lived on the island for around 60,000 years. They actively and violently reject any form of contact with the outside world — they shoot arrows at helicopters and have even killed voyagers who get too close to their island.
The Carabayo are uncontacted people living in Colombia in the Amazonian forest near the border of Brazil. In December of 2011, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos signed legislation that protects the rights of uncontacted people such as the Carabayo, which includes rights to voluntary isolation and even compensation if they are subject to any violence from outside forces.
The Jarawa live on Indian islands that aren't too far from the Sentinelese people. They've rejected outside contact for years, but after construction of a trunk road claimed some of their territory back in 1997, a few have emerged into more open land. It's estimated there's around 300 Jarawa people living today.
This indigenous tribe currently lives in Yasuni National Park at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin. It's believed that there are around 150–300 Taromenane people still maintaining a nomadic lifestyle on this land. Recently, intimidation from illegal loggers and oil developers have threatened their existence.
This group is found in the Roraima area of southern Guyana and northern Brazil. In Brazil, around 150 people can live in any given Wapishana village. Some Wapishana leaders have been in contact with government officials in the past, but the majority of the tribe members are extremely distrustful of outsiders.
The Toromona is a tribe in South America that lives excluded from society in northwest Bolivia (their exact location is still relatively unknown). In 2006, an Administrative Resolution passed that created an exclusive portion of the Madidi National Park designated to protect the Toromona.
Korubu is the name given to a tribe of indigenous people currently living isolated in the lower Javari Valley of the Amazon Basin. They've had some violent contacts with the surrounding communities but are generally considered to be one of the last remaining groups of truly untouched communities in the world. There are around 150 Korubo people living in Brazil, although a tribal woman named Maya created a sub-group that lives separately and has about 23 members.
Around 100 people make up the Wayampi tribe that exists between the Eureupoucine and the Upper Camopi in French Guiana. They have three dialects but refuse outside human contact of any kind.
In Paraguay and Bolivia, the indigenous people known as the Ayoreo make their home. While there are patches of Ayoreo people who have made human contact and struggle with cultural assimilation, there are also groups who still live in voluntary isolation (around 100 individuals total). The isolated groups are currently threatened by deforestation and losing territory.
An indigenous tribe of people from Bolivia, the Yuqui primarily live in the Santa Cruz and Cochabamba areas of eastern Bolivia. The group of Yuqui that remains isolated from civilization primarily exist as hunter-gatherers. Many call the Amboró National Park home.
The Awá or Guajá are an endangered indigenous group of people currently living in the eastern section of the Amazon in Brazil. Out of an estimated 350 members of the tribe, around 100 have absolutely no contact with the outside world. They live as hunter-gatherers and are increasingly threatened — Survival International, a human rights organization which campaigns for the rights of indigenous tribal people, reports that the Awá-Guajá are "Earth's most threatened tribe."
The Karitiana are an indigenous people of Brazil who have around 320 members. Their leader is a man named Renato Caritiana. They have extremely little contact with the outside world and instead choose to live by farming, fishing and hunting.
The Apurinã are an indigenous people who live near the Purus River in western Brazil. They speak their own language called Apurinã. It's estimated that around 50 of them live in total isolation from civilization.